Hockey on the grass is one of the oldest types of hockey, and it is a team sport practiced by two teams on the field of a field covered with grass.

 The International Federation of this game was established in 1907, and a year later it was included in the Olympic Games program.

 The most famous countries in this game are India and Pakistan, which have monopolized its heroism for many years, until it entered Germany on the line of this game and extracted the title from them for the first time in 1972, then Britain.

 The hockey team consists of 11 players for each team.  Players use the hockey stick to control, dance and hit the ball.  In this game, players strive to score goals by placing the ball in the opponent’s goal.  The team that scores the most goals wins the game.

 History of hockey

 Hockey is one of the oldest games known to be played today.  Iranians knew it about 2000 BC, and moved to medieval Europe, which is shown by pictures of men playing a game with swastika sticks, on the windows of stained glass in the Canterbury and Gloucester cathedrals.  It became a very popular game in the Middle Ages, but it was banned in England for some time because it was delaying the practice of shooting, which was the basis of national defense.

 There is a possibility that the word “hockey” is derived from the French word “hookett”, which means the sheep’s stick or the swastika.

 Hockey started as a sport at the end of the nineteenth century and the first hockey club is Blackheath Football Club.  Hockey developed as a British sport, before being moved to the four corners of the British Empire by soldiers and workers.  It is mentioned that most of the dominant countries to win the results of this sport were members of the British Empire, and this includes India, Pakistan, Australia, New Zealand and England.

 At the Olympic Games

 Men’s hockey appeared for the first time in the Olympic program in the 1908 tournament and since its return again in the 1920s it has been continuing in the Olympic program until now.  In 1980, women hockey was first introduced as an Olympic sport.

 The laws of the game

 • The stadium is of artificial or natural grass, measuring 91.4 m and 55 m.

 Goal: 3,66 meters wide and 2,14 meters high.

 • Surrounding the goal is a semicircle. The aiming circle is called a beam of 14.63 meters.

 • The penalty point is 6,4 meters from the middle of the goal line.

 • The ball is made of hard plastic.

 • The goalkeeper’s shoe allows him to block the ball with his foot and protects him from injury.

 The stick is curled at the bottom and used to hit, pass and receive the ball.

 • Leg guards are used by guards for protection.

 Helmet to protect the guard’s head.

 • Each team consists of eleven major players on the field.

 The match consists of two halves of 35 minutes each.

 • The break between the two halves is five minutes.

 • The match is led by two referees on the field.  • The match will resume from the center of the field after scoring any goal or at the start of the match or the second half

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